Thursday, May 21, 2020
In 1917, Margaret Sanger was arrested for distributing contraception pessirie to a immigrant women. Margaret Sanger, was a nurse, mother, sex educator, writer and most importantly an activist. Sanger, fought for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights which one of the main one was to legalize birth control in America. During the process of fighting Sanger establish the American Birth Control League, now called Planned Parenthood. Sanger fund money to Grisworld the created of the hormonal birth control pill the dream of Sanger. Sanger, Ã¢â¬Å"wanted to have it all, and was birth control as the necessary condition for the resolution of their often conflicting needs.Ã¢â¬ (Chesler 25). Birth control has always been a colossal issue since it was invention in the 1960s by Griswold and has remained and extraordinarily controversial topic since. Therefore, if teenagers get their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s consent for birth control, teens will still manage to get their way and have sex, parent will think they are unhe althy, and last some parent would want their female teenager conserve until marriage. Meanwhile, if they do not get the parental consent, teenage will be encouraged to be more sexually active, female teenage will know they are safe on not getting pregnant, and it will encourage female be promiscuous. This world is now in the 21 century, teenage have a bigger mentality then parent. When it comes to sex teenage will find their way to be active even thought they are at an early age consider them immature, but some parentShow MoreRelatedMargaret Sanger And Birth Control1060 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMargaret Sanger, Also known for being a feminist and womens rights activist, and coined birth control to become legalised. Margaret started her mission to legalise birth control in 1916, she was know as a racist for the reason she wanted to have birth control was to Ã¢â¬Å"get rid of black babiesÃ¢â¬ , but she had also believed in womens rights. In a 1921 article, she wrote that, Ã¢â¬Å"the most urgent problem today is how to limit and discourage the over-fertility of the mentally and physically defective.Ã¢â¬ whichRead MoreThe Birth Control Of Margaret Sanger2106 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescreation and use of birth control. Birth control not only gives women rights as to whether or not they want to bear children but it also helps women with menstrual cycles. Women at one point had no contraception or information on birth control. Imagine the world today without knowledge on contraception. Imagine how middle to lower class citizens would survive. Most of the children would be lucky to be fed yet alone college educated. This is all because one woman, Margaret Sanger, devoted her life toRead MoreMargaret Sanger : A Birth Control Activist1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMargaret Sanger was not only a birth control activist, she was also an author, a nurse and a sex educator and many of her influences for being an activist come from her family. Born on September 14, 1879, in Corning, New York, she was the sixth of eleven children born into a poor Roman Catholic family (Sanger 14). Her mother had various miscarriages, which Sanger believed affected her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s health, and was a devoted Roman Catholic who believed one should conform to the rules while her father wasRead Mor eBirth Control Movement : Margaret Sanger1980 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe birth control movement was created in early 20th century by Progressive and Socialist reformers like Margaret Sanger. She and other birth control activists would fight for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s access to birth control through the 20th century which has gone on to affect American women today. In order to analyze the affect that birth control has had on America, it is necessary to look at the works of Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement of the progressive era. A good primary source with informationRead MoreMargaret Sanger And The Birth Control Movement Highlighted1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMargaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement highlighted a variety of important issues. These issues include womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to make decisions privately versus the right of a community to regulate moral behavior; the ethnic demographics of the American people; the ability of women to control their own physical destini es by limiting family size; and the idea that small families were the way to keep the American dream alive. The debate over birth control spoke to personal and political issues, whichRead MoreMargaret Sanger s The First Birth Control Movement1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMargaret Sanger revolutionized the world in a important way. Margaret Sanger was known for leading the birth control movement. She financed the research needed to develop Ã¢â¬Å"the pillÃ¢â¬ , an easy form of birth control that women could take themselves. She also founded the Planned Parenthood Federation Of America continuing her legacy of authoritative work to allow parenthood and birth control to be much easier. Margaret Sanger left a legacy of leading the birth control movement. Margaret Sanger was bornRead MoreMargaret Sanger s A Moral Necessity For Birth Control1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPublic discussions of birth control were criminalized under the Comstock Act of 1873 because people believed it was immoral. Margaret Sanger, who had opened the first birth control clinic in 1916 despite the Comstock Act of 1873, was a feminist and advocate. After serving prison time, Sanger returned publicly and illegally with drive to present a strong argument that defended the moral use of birth control. Prior to her morally controversial 1921 speech, Sanger was arrested in New York for her intentRead MoreMargaret Sanger And Birth Control During The Industrial Revolution979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgiving birth.Women began to want to control their own bodies. Margaret Sanger took notice of the problems that women had to face and decided to do something about it. Margaret Sanger encountered many conflicts while she was fighting for legal use of contraception. Sanger believ ed that birth control gave women a choice to become a mother when she believed was ready. Birth control also gave women knowledge about their bodies and helped control the human population. Sanger was determined to reach a compromiseRead MoreMargaret Sanger s Stand Up For Birth Control Rights1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgiving birth multiple times and you are desperate to know of a way to prevent yourself from having more children. This was the exact case for millions of women in the twentieth century. Women had no rights as a person, nor did they have any rights to their own bodies. In this era, the topics of sexuality, sex and birth control were all taboo subject matters and never discussed between married or unmarried couples. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the year of 1912 that a woman by the name of Margaret Sanger startedRead MoreRhetorical Strategies Used in The Morality of Birth Control Speech by Margaret Sanger970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaware or not, your strategies more than likely f all under ethos, pathos, or logos, that of which, I would like to uncover in the speech of Margaret Sanger. Margaret Sanger was, at large, a birth control activist, but this speech was more about the questioning of birth control corrupting morality in women. People must remember, in the day and age where Sanger presented this speech, November 1921, women were considered very far from equal and much closer to servants or maids. In her speech, I saw that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Fourth Amendment of the Constitution was ratified in 1791 and is an important amendment in the Bill of Rights. The Fourth Amendment is Ã¢â¬Å"the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seizedÃ¢â¬ (Charles Wetterer). The issue of searching and seizing first originated in Britain in the mid-1700Ã¢â¬â¢s where British officers had general warrants to search citizens. While this became an issue for citizens in Britain, it became apparent also in the colonies where British soldiers were searching with only general warrants. Many citizens believed it was an invasion of privacy. So after independence from Britain, and the failure of the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution was produced. George Mason , an important political figure in Virginia, had written the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and he and other delegates believed the primary purpose of the government was to protect the rights of its citizens. To further that, he believed citizens had the right to be secure from unlawful searches and seizures. Once the idea of the Bill of Rights came into play, the Fourth Amendment was also created. The Fourth Amendment actually guarantees two things: You cannot search or seize unless you have a warrant and aShow MoreRelatedThe Fourth Amendment Of The Constitution1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Homework 1 1. The Fourth Amendment of the U.S Constitution says, Ã¢â¬Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by OathRead MoreFourth Amendment Of Us Constitution1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1) Fourth Amendment of Us constitution provides the following: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or afÃ¯ ¬ rmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Explanation: Hence the above statement says that Constitution provides the privacy to the citizens andRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment Of The U.s. Constitution1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution provides, [t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. The ultimate goal of this provision is to protect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s right to privacy and freedom from arbitrary governmentalRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment Of Us Constitution1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 1) Fourth Amendment of Us constitution provides the following: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or afÃ¯ ¬ rmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Explanation: Hence the above statement says that Constitution provides the privacy to the citizensRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment Of The Us Constitution929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunconstitutional. The Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution protects its citizens by giving Ã¢â¬Å"the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizuresÃ¢â¬ (U.S. Const., amend. IV). This amendment aims to prevent officers from conducting random searches of a citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ property and aims to give them a reasonable expectation of privacy. Some searches such as a dog sniff inspection are also invalid under the fourth amendment. This is becauseRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment Of The United States Constitution1327 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe fourth amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights, and was introduced to Congress by James Madison in 1789. The role of the Fourth Amendment is to prohibit unreasonable search and seizure and a warrant is to be required that is supported by probable cause. Even though the Amendment was introduced in 1789, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t adopted as an official amendment until 1792, because in December of 1791 three quarters of the states had ratified the amendment. The fourth amendmentRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment Of The United States Constitution1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution applies to a person and their home by providing protection against unreasonable seizures and searches. While it provides protection, not every s earch and seizure can be deemed unreasonable unless it is classified as per the law, by determining whether there was: a) the level of intrusion of the individuals Fourth Amendment, and b) whether or not it pertains to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, such as safety of the public. The right to protectionRead MoreFourth Amendment Of United States Constitution1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬â 1 Somalaraju Sateesh Kumar Raju 700628655 1. Fourth amendment of United States Constitution protects people from being undergone unwarranted searches and prevent their things from being taken away by authorities without proper authorization. If any government official or agent want to search an individual or their belongings, they should have proper reason to do that and get permission from the judge. Fourth amendment of United States constitution states that it is Ã¢â¬Å"the right of the people to beRead MoreFourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments to the Constitution Essay887 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCJL 4064 Amendment Project As requested by the committee chair, I have examined the 4th, 5th, and 6th Amendments of our Constitution. It is imperative for the participants of the Constitutional Convention to update, and furthermore, enhance the Bill of Rights. The amendments were created with a valuable perspective on individual rights in the 1700s. Today, in 2010, our country has developed in the use of language, our principles, and our overall society. After close examination of theRead MoreThe Fourth Amendment Under The Constitution Prohibits Unreasonable Searches And Seizures1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Fourth Amendment under the Constitution prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. Katz v. U.S., 389 U.S. 353 (1967). The general rule under the Fourth Amendment requires a search warrant to be obtained before a search. Riley v. California, 134 S. Ct. 2482 (2014). However, a search without a warrant may be reasonable if it falls within an exception to the warrant requirement. Id. at 2482. Some exceptions that have been argued in drunk driving cases are Ã¢â¬Å"exigent circumstancesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"search-incident-to-arrest
Impressionism and Earth Art When one hears the term Impressionism or Earth Art, one can already presume and expect what sort of depiction each movement would present without having any prior knowledge of them. Impressionism, which began in the sassÃ¢â¬â¢s, often depicted scenes and the artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ impression of nature and, modest yet vivacious quarters of Paris. Now almost exactly one hundred years later, a completely new form of art takes the place of the prior paintings of those subject matters, actually inside -called Earth Art. We will write a custom essay sample on Impressionism and Earth Art or any similar topic only for you Order Now In France, 1875, a new genre of painting began to emerge. These paintings demonstrated a fleeting outcome of colors. Impressionists aimed to capture that immediate moment of their subjects which provided a sense of spontaneity. These sudden bursts of color and light had taken the public by surprise -who had adapted to observing rather conservative, academic paintings with somber shades of colors. It was the first most dramatic change in style, expression and revolutionized painting throughout Europe and eventually the world. For Earth artists, they all had similar objectives as well. It was now taking their imaginations to the outdoors as well as raise awareness towards the environment. This form of art is almost like three- emotional version of Impressionism landscape pieces, but with a more defined arrangement and form. Earth artists made of use of the materials the landscapes offered such as dirt and rocks. The leaders of their respective movements, Claude Monet and Robert Smithson both began completely new eras of art. Claude Monet started off as a realist and Robert Smithson started as a conceptual artist. Monet wanted to create an impression of what he saw and defied the norms of realistic, bibliographic paintings. The thickness and low consistency of his oil paints allowed him to dramatically express his impression of his subject matter. His paintings mainly consist of landscapes, water lilies in particular. Smithson also took the initiative to start something completely new. Smithson pieces were meant to gradually perish through time and nature. It was a theme throughout all his works, whether it was his art or his writing -the theme of time. Smithson aimed and successfully displayed the delicateness of nature in such a commercial environment. In 1873, MotetÃ¢â¬â¢s pieces entitled Impression; Sunrise initiated the spark which would soon become Impressionism. Louis Leroy, the critic, declared this painting incomplete, that it was solely a sketch of MotetÃ¢â¬â¢s impression and this resulted in the hole movement being coined by this piece. Monet conveys vague forms through his short, natural brushstrokes of his oil paints. The constant altering of light and color are effectively represented through the shadows and contrasting of the pure colors. This piece, Spiral Jetty (1970), is already exceptional in a sense that there is no exact set way to observe it. From afar, from above, up close, each different view gives off a different sensation. Smithson implements the use of black basalt, limestone rocks, dirt and the earth itself to create this seemingly effortless spiral. It is a staggering Engel of 1,600 feet, smoothly extending into Salt Lake City, Utah. Both pieces use a body of water as the foreground, but different focal points. MotetÃ¢â¬â¢s piece has a dark boat figure and bright sun which contrasts the more composed shades of green, blues and yellows. Spiral Jetty doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily contrast greatly color-wise but in form. The elongated, linear movement of the spiral with a Jagged texture is distinct from the uniformity of the ocean. Initially looking at the two pieces, Haystacks, Morning Snow Effect and Spiral Hill, there is already a similarity in form of the central objects. The haystack and the hill ACH have a trilateral shape and upward motion. Smithson evidently creates circular motion up the hill. Often through the use of circular motion and shapes, he demonstrates his theme of time, the chronological cycle. Through MotetÃ¢â¬â¢s piece, he also embraces the notion of time but more so of a moment in time. Although the brushstrokes of the oil paints are rather rough, the softness of the colors and contrasts emit the serenity of a winter morning. The appropriate choices of colors, the soft yellows, blues and grey, capture the essence of the bitter cold winter morning but also the warmth of a morning sun. The murky cast shadow of the haystack illustrates the progression and movement of the sunrise. This atmosphere in MotetÃ¢â¬â¢s painting clearly depicted and established whereas Smithson piece is transposable. Depending on the time and day at Men, Holland, the weather can alter the impression it imprints. Wet, gloomy weather versus a warm summer day, each produce a different foreground. Rain or snow, along with the black soil and white sand that Smithson utilized for this piece, can affect the color and shade of the materials as well as the texture. Though Claude Monet and Robert Smithson ideas are a century apart, they both had significant effect on society and the history of art. Their contributions and efforts lead art history to keep moving to what it is today. How to cite Impressionism and Earth Art, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
The Character of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice Essay Merchant Venice EssaysThe Character of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice Often, The character Shylock, in Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice, is portrayed as a beastly monstrosity, with a lust for Antonios life. Through a more careful examination it can be determined that Shylock was an upstanding member of his community, who endured abuse, forgave easily, and upheld the customs and law. Shylock endured much of Antonios abuse, overt a long period of time. This can be seen by the sheer volume of disgraces he has bore. A good example is in Act 3 Scene 1, beginning with line 52: He hath disgraced me half a million, laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies -Shylock Shylock had such a magnanimous spirit, that he even offered Antonio, who had abused him terribly, a loan, free of interest. Shylock was willing to loan money to one who totally ruined him in public, on terms that were nicer than his no rmal business terms. This kind, forgiving heart can be seen in Act 1 Scene 3 beginning with line 148: Why, look how you storm ! I would be friends with you and have your love, forget the names that you have stained me with, supply your present needs and take no doit of usance for my moneys, and youll not hear me! This is kind I offer. -Shylock Often, this quote from Act 3 Scene 1 line 83, Why, there, there, there, there! A diamond gone cost me twothousand ducats in Frankfurt! The curse never fell upon our nationtill now, I never felt it till now. Two thousand ducats in that andother precious, precious, jewels! I would my daughter were deadat my foot and the jewels in her ear; portraying Shylocks treatment of his daughter, after she ran away, is manipulated to make Shylock seem beastly. But, within the Jewish culture and the time period, his response was appropriate. After his daughter ran away, she was, for all intents and purposes, disowned. Thusly, the theft of his jewel s reduced her to the level of a thief, and so she deserved to be punished. Shylock is also an honest, law abiding citizen of Venice, before the very end. His great respect for law and order are shown in the following quotes from Act 4 Scene 1. Line 104: I stand for judgment Line 213: I crave the law Line 257: O Noble judge! Shylock the Jew, through a careful examination of The Merchant of Venice, is found to be an enduring, magnanimous, forgiving, and law abiding citizen of Venice. As opposed to his typical role as the wicked blood thirsty villain. We will write a custom essay on The Character of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s account of philosophy Essays PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s account of philosophy Paper PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s account of philosophy Paper Essay Topic: Phaedrus Second Treatise of Government Plato was born in Athens, in c. 427 B.C.E. During this period, Athens was involved in a long drawn, resource intensive and disastrous war with Sparta, also known as the Ã Peloponnesian War. The scion of an aristocratic ancestry, Plato came from a distinguished family. He was the son of Ariston descending from Codrus, one of the early kings of Athens and Perictione, descending from Solon, the prominent reformer of the Athenian constitution, both of Athenian aristocratic ancestry.. Plato spent the greater part of his life in Athens, with occasional visits to Sicily and Southern Italy and as per one account, he also traveled to Egypt. Details regarding the early part of his life is not known, but he was certainly privileged enough to get the finest education Athens had to offer to people of noble lineage. Plato was a disciple of Socrates, whom he considered the most learned man of his times. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s association with Socrates was a turning point in his life, as it had a profound and lasting influence on the course of his life, philosophy and thinking. The compelling power of his arguments and methods impressed Plato and he became a close associate of Socrates. Socrates was amongst the most influential scholar of his times and he was a pioneer who concerned himself with the study of exclusively moral and political issues unlike his contemporaries who were more preoccupied with cosmology and ontology.Considering his distinguished origins and the association with Socrates, he was naturally destined to take an active role in political life. Plato aspired to assume a significant position in the political landscape of Athens, but he found his attempts being consistently thwarted. The frustration is expressed by him in the autobiographical Seventh Letter, wherein he conveys his inability to assimilate himself with any of the political parties or the successively corrupt regimes of his time, all of which contributed to the downfall of Athens(324b-326a).SocratesÃ¢â ¬â¢ execution on an unjust charge of impiety had been overwhelmingly voted for(approved) by a democratic Ã court with a large majority in 399. This led Plato to the conclusion that all existing governments were flawed and ruinous; and would continue to be so, unless the rulers themselves became philosophers or unless the philosophers themselves gained political power.It was perhaps because of this opinion that he retreated to his Academy and to Sicily for implementing his ideas. Plato utilized his extensive knowledge and wisdom to the pursuit of politics and the writing of tragedy and other forms of poetry. He thrice visited Syracuse with the purpose of imparting a philosophical attitude and line of thought to the tyrannical rulers, but his effort proved futile. The brief attempt at imparting practical wisdom having failed, he retreated to Athens. His Academy was the institution of learning for subjects as diverse as Mathematics, rhetoric, astronomy, dialectics, and other subjec ts, all identified as crucial for the intellectual and philosophical development of students. The Academy proved to be a valuable base for successive generations of Platonic philosophers until its final closure in C.E. 529. Some of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s pupils later became leaders, mentors, and constitutional advisers in Greek city-states, the most distinguished amongst them being Aristotle. Plato died in c. 347 B.C.E.The focus of this research paper is to conduct a brief study on the philosophical outlook of Plato to incorporate an analysis of his best works and to illustrate the significant contribution made by him in the field of philosophy.Philosophical Tools Ã Plato is more well known for his writings like the Republic, the Statesman, the Laws and a few shorter dialogues which are considered to be strictly political treatises, Ã and hence it can be stated that Plato was an accomplished political philosopher of his times. Compared to Socrates, Plato was much more systematic as a t hinker and meticulous in his ways. He established his own school of philosophy, the Academy; which became a major source of learning for the successive generation of scholars in Athens. Unlike Socrates, Plato extended his areas of concern to include the study of metaphysics and epistemology, as he endeavored to discover the ultimate constituents of reality.The introduction of the process of conceptual analysis was initiated by Plato for the first time in the history of Philosophy, as a means to clarify a concept or its meaning. In contrast to most other philosophers of his time, Plato considered conceptual analysis as a preliminary step and not as an end in itself. He considered critical evaluation of beliefs, the deciding of which one of the incompatible ideas is correct and which one is wrong as the second step and more important step. Plato considered decision making about the political order on the same pedestal of importance as the choice between peace and war. This belief was based on the conviction that the public is not the best suited or mature enough to arrive at the correct decision, as it is capable of wisdom only in hindsight, mostly after the occurrence of disastrous experiences. In his political philosophy, the clarification of concepts is thus a preliminary step in evaluating beliefs, and right beliefs in turn lead to an answer to the question of the best political order. This gradual progression from the stages of conceptual analysis, followed by a critical assessment of beliefs, to the best political order is demonstrated in the writings of his book Ã¢â¬ËThe RepublicÃ¢â¬â¢.The most notable and outstanding example of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s mature philosophies Ã appears in The Republic, which is an extended argument for the most fundamental about the Ã conduct of human life. Plato utilizes dialogue with a fictional character Ã¢â¬ËSocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ and proceeds to examine the nature and value of justice and other virtues as they occurÃ in da y to day life, both from the perspective of human society and in the personality of a human being. This discussion thereafter leads to an in depth assessment of the various aspects of human nature, the attainment of knowledge, the ability to distinguish between substance and appearance and the basic edifice of morality. Due to the diverse range of issues it addresses, the book can be read from several different perspectives: as a political treatise, or a book on the conduct of life, as a study of society and the relation of society with that of a person, an exhaustive study on theÃ basic metaphysical and epistemological issues or as a pedagogical handbook.Justice as Defined in The republicÃ Ã Ã Ã The first section of the Republic is a discussion on the nature of justice and the aim of the discussion is to arrive at the genuine definition of the subject, through a process which involves the proposal, criticism, and rejection of several inadequate attempts at defining just ice. Since Justice is the most fundamental ethical and political concepts, it incorporates individual virtue, the order of society, and individual rights which may contradict the interests of the society. Four definitions of justice are propounded; all of them are discussed elaborately and then discarded as not being wholly consistent with the basic premises, and due toÃ the associated variable factors. Ã Thus the first section of the book ends on a negative note with all the participants in agreement that the concept of justice is not as easily defiened as it seemed due to the inconsistencies involved in popular opinions of justice. the e This negative outcome can be seen as a linguistic and philosophical therapy.The reportive definitions of justice as understood by us from its use in daily life serves to provide a partial understanding of its meaning, but the holistic definition continues to be elusive in the absence of true communications between people and a conceptual clar ity on beliefs. A definition that is merely arbitrary or either too narrow or too broad, based on a false belief about justice, does not give the possibility of communication. Platonic dialogues are expressions of the ultimate communication that can take place between humans; and true communication is likely to take place only if individuals can share meanings of the words they use. Communication based on false beliefs, such as statements of ideology, is still possible, but seems limited, dividing people into factions, and, as history teaches us, can finally lead only to confusion. Therefore, in the Republic, as well as in other Platonic dialogues, there is a relationship between conceptual analysis and critical evaluation of beliefs. The focus of the second part of Book I is no longer clarification of concepts, but evaluation of beliefs.In Platonic dialogues, rather than telling them what they have to think, Socrates is often getting his interlocutors to tell him what they think. I n the fifth and fourth century B.C.E., the sophists were paid teachers of rhetoric and other practical skills, mostly non-Athenians, offering courses of instruction and claiming to be best qualified to prepare young men for success in public life. Plato describes the sophists as itinerant individuals, known for their rhetorical abilities, who reject religious beliefs and traditional morality, and he contrasts them with Socrates, who as a teacher would refuse to accept payment and instead of teaching skills would commit himself to a disinterested inquiry into what is true. One of the participants in the discussions, Thrasymachus presents a skeptical and negativist definition of justice which states that justice is not a universally applicable moral value but a notion utilized as a tool by the dominant group in the society; and that since it comes in handy for the dominant group to suppress a vast majority of people, it is their exclusive interest and that it is has different connotat ions for the different sections of the society. Although this definition is brushed aside by Plato in the book, it is a statement thatÃ Ã has taxed whole generations of thinkers to struggle with and the debate still continues.emphasis of The Republic is vastly on the topic of the creation of an ideal state run by philosophers and its subsequent decline, the basic theme of the book is Justice. It is obvious that Plato does not intend his interpretation of the ideal political order to be practically implemented (592a-b), instead his motive is to convey the thesis thatÃ justice if understood to stand for goodness and virtue could form the foundation of a good political order. Plato contends that if the concept of Justice is correctly appreciated and exercised, it would be for the collective good of the society as a whole and the benefits would not be restricted to any particular faction. It provides the state with a sense of purpose and unity and consequently its well being. It provides the city with a sense of unity, and thus, is a basic condition for its health. Ã¢â¬Å"Injustice causes civil war, hatred, and fighting, while justice brings friendship and a sense of common purposeÃ¢â¬ (351d).A clear understanding of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of Justice and Social Order can be arrived at if PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy and thoughts are compared with the pre-philosophical insights of Solon, his maternal grandfather. Solon had been responsible for the complete restructuring of the social order of Athens at a time when Athens was poised for a rapid decline. The political and social stability of Athens had been badly shaken by the serious differences that had cropped up between the rich and the poor, the lenders and the serfs. Solon had impartially gone about the task of social and economic reforms and had brought Athens back from the brink of political and social and political collapse. Considering the fact that education at that time was imparted at home, it is probable that Plato had been deeply influenced by Solon. SolonÃ¢â¬â¢s reforms provided the Greeks with a model of political leadership based on the principles of fairness, equality and justice. Solon digressed from the accepted arithmetical interpretation and implementation of justice by approaching the issue holistically and relying upon fairness based upon difference.To a remarkable extent, PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, writings, ideas of political order, leadership, and justice can be seen to be influenced by Solon. For Plato,Ã the starting point for the inquiry about the best political order is the fact of social diversity and conflicting interests, which involve the danger of civil strife. The political community consists of different parts or social classes, such as the noble, the rich, and the poor, each representing different values, interests, and claims to rule. This gives rise to the controversy of who should rule the community, and what is the best political system. In both the Republic and the Laws, Plato asserts not only that factionalism and civil war are the greatest dangers to the city, more dangerous even than war against external enemies, but also that peace obtained by the victory of one part and the destruction of its rivals is not to be preferred to social peace obtained through the friendship and cooperation of all the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s parts (Republic 462a-b, Laws 628a-b). The best political order for Plato is that which promotes social peace in the environment of cooperation and friendship among different social groups, each benefiting from and each adding to the common good. The best form of government, which he advances in the Republic, is a philosophical aristocracy or monarchy, but that which he proposes in his last dialogue the Laws is a traditional polity: the mixed or composite constitution that reconciles different partisan interests and includes aristocratic, oligarchic, and democratic elements.Philosopher Rulers Ã Ã . De spite the fact that the fundamental components of democracy are equality and freedom, Plato does not consider democracy to be the best form of government. In the Republic, he is severely critical of unchecked democracy because of certain features Ã (557a-564a) like excessive freedom, which can potentially lead to anarchy. Similarly, he felt that the concept of equality can also be abused by power hungry people, motivated by personal gain rather than public good. Plato felt that democracy was thus highly corruptible as it provided easy access to demagogues, potential dictators, and can thus lead to tyranny. Although, this reasoning is not applicable to modern democracies, it could be seen to be highly applicable to the democratic setup existing at that point of time in Greece. Democracy depends on chance and must be mixed with competent leadership (501b).Without able and virtuous leaders, such as Solon or Pericles, who come and go by chance, it is not a good form of government. Pla to argues that since governing a state involves judicious decision making and wisdom, the people who are selected to rule should not be in a position to do so by accident of circumstances, they should be trained and prepared in the course of extensive training. Making political decisions requires good judgment. Politics needs competence, at least in the form of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s civil servants. In spite of the idealism with which he is usually associated, Plato is not politically naive. He does not idealize, but is deeply pessimistic about human beings. Most people, corrupted as they are, are for him fundamentally irrational, driven by their appetites, egoistic passions, and informed by false beliefs. If they choose to be just and obey laws, it is only because they lack the power to act criminally and are afraid of punishment (Republic, 359a). Nevertheless, human beings are not vicious by nature. They are social animals, incapable of living alone (369a-b). Living in communities and exc hanging products of their labor is natural for them, so that they have capacities for rationality and goodness. Plato, as later Rousseau, believes that once political society is properly ordered, it can contribute to the restoration of morals. A good political order, good education and upbringing can produce Ã¢â¬Å"good natures; and [these] useful natures, who are in turn well educated, grow up even better than their predecessorsÃ¢â¬ (424a). Hence, there are in Plato such elements of the idealistic or liberal world view as the belief in education and progress, and a hope for a better future. The quality of human life can be improved if people learn to be rational and understand that their real interests lie in harmonious cooperation with one another, and not in war or partisan strife. However, unlike Rousseau, Plato does not see the best social and political order in a democratic republic. If philosophers are those who can distinguish between true and false beliefs, who love know ledge and are motivated by the common good, and finally if they are not only master-theoreticians, but also the master-practitioners who can heal the ills of their society, then they, and not democratically elected representatives, must be chosen as leaders and educators of the political community and guide it to proper ends. Plato assumes that a city in which the rulers do not govern out of desire for private gain, but are least motivated by personal ambition, is governed in the way which is the finest and freest from civil strife (520d). Philosophers will rule not only because they will be best prepared for this, but also because if they do not, the city will no longer be well governed and may fall prey to economic decline, factionalism, and civil war. They will approach ruling not as something really enjoyable, but as something necessary (347c-d).Other WorksÃ Ã In a few dialogues, such as Phaedo, the Republic, Phaedrus, Timaeus, and the Laws, Plato introduces his doctrine of the immortality of the soul. His ultimate answer to the question Ã¢â¬Å"Who am I?Ã¢â¬ is not an Ã¢â¬Å"egoistic animalÃ¢â¬ or an Ã¢â¬Å"independent variable,Ã¢â¬ as the twentieth century behavioral researcher blatantly might say, but an Ã¢â¬Å"immortal soul, corrupted by vice and purified by virtue, of whom the body is only an instrumentÃ¢â¬ (129a-130c). Expert political knowledge for him should include not only knowledge of things out there, but also knowledge of oneself. This is because whoever is ignorant of himself will also be ignorant of others and of political things, and, therefore, will never be an expert politician (133e). Those who are ignorant will go wrong, moving from one misery to another (134a). For them history will be a tough teacher, but as long they do not recognize themselves and practice virtue, they will learn nothing. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s good society is impossible without transcendence, without a link to the perfect being who is God, the true measure of all things. It is also impossible without an ongoing philosophical reflection on whom we truly are. Therefore, democracy would not be a good form of government for him unless, as it is proposed in the Laws, the element of freedom is mixed with the element of wisdom, which includes ultimate knowledge of the self. Unmixed and unchecked democracy, marked by the general permissiveness that spurs vices, makes people impious, and lets them forget about their true self, is only be the second worst in the rank of flawed regimes after tyranny headed by a vicious individual. This does not mean that Plato would support a theocratic government based on shallow religiosity and religious hypocrisy. There is no evidence for this. Freedom of speech, forming opinions and expressing them, which may be denied in theocracy, is a true value for Plato, along with wisdom. It is the basic requirement for philosophy. In shallow religiosity, like in atheism, there is ignorance and no knowledge of the self either. In Book II of the Republic, Plato criticizes the popular religious beliefs of the Athenians, who under the influence of Homer and Hesiod attribute vices to the gods and heroes (377d-383c). He tries to show that God is the perfect being, the purest and brightest, always the same, immortal and true, to whom we should look in order to know ourselves and become pure and virtuous (585b-e). God, and not human beings, is the measure of political order (Laws, 716c).CriticismÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Objections against the government of philosopher-rulers can be made. Firstly, because of the restrictions concerning family and private property, Plato is often accused of totalitarianism. However, PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s political vision differs from a totalitarian state in a number of important aspects. Especially in the Laws he makes clear that freedom is one of the main values of society (701d). Other values for which Plato stands include justice, friendship, wisdom, courage, and mode ration, and not factionalism or terror that can be associated with a totalitarian state. The restrictions which he proposes are placed on the governors, rather than on the governed. Secondly, one can argue that there may obviously be a danger in the self-professed claim to rule of the philosophers. Individuals may imagine themselves to be best qualified to govern a country, but in fact they may lose contact with political realities and not be good leaders at all.ConclusionÃ Ã Ã Ã PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement as a political philosopher may be seen in that he believed that there could be a body of knowledge whose attainment would make it possible to heal political problems, such as factionalism and the corruption of morals, which can bring a city to a decline. The doctrine of the harmony of interests, fairness as the basis of the best political order, the mixed constitution, the rule of law, the distinction between good and deviated forms of government, practical wisdom as the quality of good leadership, and the importance of virtue and transcendence for politics are the political ideas that can rightly be associated with Plato. They have profoundly influenced subsequent political thinkers.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
How to Extract DNA From a Banana Extracting DNA from a banana may sound like a difficult task, but it is not very difficult at all. The process involves a few general steps, including mashing, filtration, precipitation, and extraction. What You Need BananaSaltWarm waterLiquid soapBlenderToothpicksStrainerGlass jarRubbing alcoholKnife Heres How Using your knife, cut your banana into tiny pieces to expose more of the cells.Place your banana pieces in the blender, add a teaspoon of salt and slightly cover the mixture with warm water. The salt will help the DNA stay together during the mashing process.Mix in the blender for 5 to 10 seconds making sure the mixture is not too runny.Pour the mixture into the glass jar through the strainer. You want the jar to be about half full.Add about 2 teaspoons of liquid soap and gently stir the mixture. You should try not to create bubbles when stirring. The soap helps to break down cell membranes to release the DNA.Carefully pour very cold rubbing alcohol down the side of the glass stopping near the top.Wait for 5 minutes to allow the DNA to separate from the solution.Use the toothpicks to extract the DNA that floats to the surface. It will be long and stringy. Tips When pouring the alcohol, make sure that two separate layers are being formed (The bottom layer being the banana mixture and the top layer being the alcohol).When extracting the DNA, twist the toothpick slowly. Be sure to only remove the DNA from the top layer.Try repeating this experiment again using other foods such as an onion or chicken liver. Process Explained Mashing the banana exposes a greater surface area from which to extract the DNA. The liquid soap is added to help break down cell membranes to release the DNA. The filtration step (pouring the mixture through the strainer) allows for the collection of the DNA and other cellular substances. The precipitation step (pouring the cold alcohol down the side of the glass) allows the DNA to separate from other cellular substances. Finally, the DNA is removed from the solution by extraction with the toothpicks. DNA Basics DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule, illustration. Ã KTSDESIGN/Science Photo Library/Getty Images What is DNA?: DNA is a biological molecule that contains genetic information. It is a nucleic acid that is organized into chromosomes. The genetic code found in DNA provides instructions for the production of proteins and all components necessary for the reproduction of life. Where is DNA Found?: DNA can be found in the nucleus of our cells. Organelles known as mitochondria also produce their own DNA. What makes up DNA?: DNA is composed of long nucleotide strands. How is DNA shaped?: DNA commonly exists as a double stranded molecule with a twisted double helical shape. What is the role of DNA in inheritance?: Genes are inherited through the replication of DNA in the process of meiosis. Half of our chromosomes are inherited from our mother and half from our father. What is the role of DNA in protein production?: DNA contains the genetic instructions for the production of proteins. DNA is first transcribed into an RNA version of the DNA code (RNA transcript). This RNA message is then translated to produce proteins. Proteins are involved in just about all cell functions and are key molecules in living cells. More Fun With DNA This model shows the double helix and nucleotide base structure of DNA. The double helix is formed by two spiraling strands of sugar phosphates. Nucleotide bases (red, blue, yellow, green) are arrayed along these strands. LAWRENCE LAWRY/Getty Images Constructing DNA models is a great way to learn about the structure of DNA, as well as DNA replication. You can learn how to make DNA models out of everyday objects including cardboard and jewelry. You can even learn how to make a DNA model using candy.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Should SDSu student use ADHD drug to help them study - Essay Example On the other hand, there are students who abuse these drugs by taking them even though they do not have the condition. This is very common among students who have high expectations to excel. Despite the significant risks associated with ADHD drugs, some students take them without proper medical advice in order to cope with high expectations and academic standards. Even for students with ADHD, the drugs only improve concentration and attention but do not help when it comes to studying. Preliminary investigations show that the primary motive as to why students take ADHD drugs is for study help. Since ADHD drugs are one of the most abused drugs among students, the current paper examines whether SDSu students should use these drugs. Using ethical and logical (health concerns) arguments, we argue that only students with special needs, having been examined by relevant specialists, should be allowed to take ADHD drugs. Application of Appeal of Logic Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was originally believed to be a pediatric condition. Children who suffer from ADHD continue experiencing the symptoms even in adulthood. Adderall is the most common prescribed drug for students with ADHD, with Ritalin and Dexedrine. . ADHD stimulant is a legal drug as compared to other illegal drugs sold on the street. When one buys these drugs, it is evident that dirty druggies like those who prepare cocaine do not prepare the drug. Therefore, SDSu students with special needs should use ADHD drugs because most people trust the drugÃ¢â¬â¢s medical founding. It is quite evident that medical experts would not deceive the public about the ADHD stimulant quality. ADHD drugs are perceived to be stimulants because they expand dopamine in the brain. There has been an increase in the consumption of ADHD stimulants in the United States of America that is, individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ expenditure on these drugs rose from 83% to 90% from the year 1993 to 2003. The increase in consumption of th ese drugs does not only apply in United States but also the rest of the world. Usually, students use these drugs to curb exam pressures since sleepiness and fatigue makes it hard for students to study. However, students use these drugs not necessarily to score high but to concentrate during study. In addition, using the ADHD stimulants is not legal because Adderall is a controllable stimulant just like cocaine (Oremus, 2013). Application of Appeal of Emotion Research indicates that some students take ADHD stimulants for the right reason. Students use these stimulants to encourage positive outcomes: good and high grades. For instance, Oremus (2013) explains that these drugs allow one to hold attention for long hours when performing a task. The stimulants also increase individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to remember, multitask, and to be faster in handling activities. Crusius and Channell (2010) claims that taking ADHD drug helps students think better and perform successfully and professional ly in schoolwork. However, ADHD drug is for individuals who want success in their work towards achieving their goals. According to Oremus, (2013), Cambridge undergraduate students who employ ADHD drugs in their studies and their consumption has resulted to enhancements such as recollecting of information within a short duration and planning capabilities. If a student wants to experience a